Deer – Types, characteristics and habitat

Deer – Types, characteristics and habitat

Did you know that deer have been on our planet for 34 million years? This large family of herbivorous mammals began its long biological evolution in the Oligocene, currently having up to 48 different species grouped into 20 taxonomic genera.





Taxonomic classification of deer

Commonly known as deer, the family Cervidae falls under the following taxonomic classification, according to the criteria established by the prestigious classification of the Taxonomic List of Animal Species of the World (the World Taxonomic List of Mammalian Species ):

  • Kingdom: animals.
  • Border: chordates.
  • Class: mammals.
  • Order : artiodactyls.
  • Suborder: ruminants.
  • Family: deer.

Now that we’ve taxonomically located deer, let’s move on to discovering more details about the characteristics, types and habitats of these amazing animals.

Characteristics of deer

When it comes to knowing the characteristics that define the different types of the cervix, it is interesting to distinguish between characteristics related to its anatomies, such as those related to its eating and behavioural habits.




anatomical features

In deer, as in other animals belonging to the Artiodactyla order, the ends end in an even number of hoof-shaped fingers, which rest on the ground for walking. As such, they are considered hoofed animals. In addition, their legs are thin, as are their heads and necks, the trunk being thicker and heavier.

Another of the most striking features of deer is, without a doubt, the presence of horns in adult individuals, preferably males. They have hardened keratin structures with velvety coatings that appear as protrusions on the skull but are not made of bony material. Thus, they differ from the bony horns of cattle and other horned animals. In addition, antlers are characterized by going through a moulting period, either annually or exclusively during their youth, depending on the deer species.

Deer behaviour

It highlights the territorial behaviour of male deer, which tend to use their large horns to duel with other males in order to achieve mating with as many females as possible. During this mating period, the red deer’s unique ability ( Cervus Elaphus ) stands out to emit thunderous howls, highlighting its presence and territoriality when attracting the attention of females for mating.



Deer feeding

Deer follow a herbivorous diet, consuming all types of leaves, buds, flowers, twigs and grazing herbs.

The way in which deer consume vegetables is by grazing or grazing, with subsequent digestion characteristic of ruminants.

The vast majority of deer species live in large herds, with which they migrate as seasons change in order to graze in greener habitats with warmer temperatures.

Types of deer or deer, deer and moose

The taxonomic family Cervidae includes a large number of species that we can find in natural and man-made habitats (such as reserves and zoos) across the planet. From the majestic moose Moose moose ), the largest deer that reaches a wingspan of 3 meters, to the smallest deer, the Chinese aquatic deer ( Hydropotes inermis ).

Capreolinos (Subfamily Capreolinae)

The Carolina subfamily includes each and every one of those commonly known as ” New World Deer ” such as the majestic moose and reindeer (or caribou), which live in herds, and the lone deer. In the following list, let us see the official taxonomic classification of capreolins, thus knowing their common and scientific names.


Genus Moose :

  • Eurasian moose Moose moose ).

Capreolus genus :

  • Common roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ).
  • Asian or Siberian roe deer ( Capreolus pygargus ).

Genus Hippocamelus :

  • Andean deer, taruca or northern huemul ( Hippocamelus antisepsis ).
  • Andean deer or southern huemul ( Hippocamelo bisulcus ).

Genus Mazama :

  • Red corzuela or guazu-pitá ( American Mazama ).
  • Small reddish corzuela ( Mazama Bororo ).
  • Candelillo or locha ( Mazama bricenii ).
  • Brown corzuela, guazucho, viracho or guazú will come ( Mazama gouazoubira ).
  • Pygmy corzuela ( Mazama nana ).
  • Yuk ( Mazama Pandora ).
  • Wasteland Deer ( Mazama rufina ).
  • Temazato of Central America ( Mazama temama ).

Genus Odocoileus :

  • Mule deer or mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus ).
  • White-tailed Gazelle ( Odocoileus virginianus ).

Ozotoceros genus :



  • Pampas deer ( Ozotoceros bezoarticus) .
  • Southern Pudu ( Pudu Puda ).

Genus Rangif.webper :

  • Reindeer or caribou ( Rangif.webper tarandus ).

Matterhorn (subfamily Cervinae)

The Cervina subfamily is the second and largest of the 3 that make up the Cervidae family. It includes a total of 10 genera and up to 26 species of deer or deer living today. Let’s put a first and last name for these 26 species, grouped by genus in the following list:

Genus Axis :

  • The shaft or Chital Deer ( Shaft shaft ).
  • Calamian deer or Calamian axis (Axis calamianensis ).

Genus Cervus :

  • Uapiti ( Cervus canadensis).
  • Common deer, red deer or red deer ( Cervus Elaphus ) .
  • Sica deer ( Cervus nippon ).

Genus Lady :

  • Common deer or European deer ( Lady lady ).

Elaphodus genus :

  • Crested or Ellaphode deer ( Elaphodus cephalous)

Elaphurus genus :

  • Father David’s Deer ( Elaphurus davidianus ).

Muntiacus genus :

  • Borneo Yellow Muntiac ( Muntiacus atherodes ).
  • Black Muntiac (Muntiacus crinifrons ).
  • Muntiac of Fea ( Muntiacus feae ).
  • Gongshan Muntiac (Muntiacus gongshanensis ).
  • Muntiac from India ( Muntiacus muntjak ).
  • Hukawng Muntiac ( Muntiacus putaoensis ).
  • Reeves’ Muntiac ( Muntiacus Reevesi ).
  • Truong Son Muntiac ( Muntiacus truongsonensis ).
  • Giant Muntiac ( Muntiacus vuquangensis ).

Genus Przewalskium :

  • White-nosed or Thorold deer ( Przewalskium albirostris ).

Genus Rucervus :

  • Marsh deer ( Rucervus duvaucelii ).
  • Eld or Tamin deer ( Rucervus eldii ).

Russian Genre :

  • Philippine Spotted Deer ( Russian Alfredo ).
  • Timorese deer ( Russian Timorese ).
  • Sambar ( Russian Unicolor ).


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